Indicates continuous exposure when used with toxicological data; e.g., "LD50 > 5 g/kg, 24 H-C" means continuous exposure for 24 hours. OSHA also uses C to designate ceiling exposure limit. See Ceiling Limit; TLV.

C (¿C) - Celsius

Degrees Celsius (centigrade). Metric temperature scale on which 0 (zero) degrees Celsius (32 degrees F) equals the freezing point of water. 100 degrees Celsius (212 degrees F) equals the boiling point of water. F degrees = (degrees C X 1.8) + 32. Degrees C = (degrees F -32) X 5/9.See degrees F.


Corrective Action.


Clean Air Act (1970, 1977, 1990); federal law mandating and enforcing air pollutant emissions standards for stationary sources and motor vehicles.


Compliance Assurance Agreement.


Clean Air Act Amendments.

CAA Amendments

Clean Air Act Amendments (1990); expand EPA enforcement powers and add restrictions on air toxics, ozone-depleting chemicals, stationary and mobile emissions sources, and emissions implicated in acid rain and global warming.


Computer Aided Design.


Computer Aided Drafting and Design.


a heavy metal element that accumulates in the environment.


Consent Agreement Final Order.


a term applied to a dewatered residue from a filter, centrifuge, or other dewatering device.


Calcium Inhibitor - Cooling Water Treatment (ETUS).


unit of heat. The amount of heat required to raise 1 g of water 1 degree C. See Btu.


California Department of Transportation.


Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations


Continuous Air Monitoring Program.


Combined Area Management Units.


Corrective Action Management Unit.

cancer, carcinoma

a malignant tumor or cancer; a new growth made up of cells that tend to grow rapidly, infiltrate other cells, and give rise to metastasis (spreading). Each cancer is believed to originate from a single "transformed" cell that grows (splits) at a fast, abnormally regulated pace, no matter where it occurs in the body. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US.The NTP reports that one- to two-thirds of cancers are associated with our environment.


Corrective Action Order.


Corrective Action Plan.


Cost Allocation Procedure.


Criteria Air Pollutant.


Critical Aquifer Protection Area.


TOTAL - the ultimate exchange capacity of the resin.OPERATING - the portion of total capacity utilized in practical ion exchange operation.SALT-SPLITTING - the portion of total capacity to split neutral salts.An expression of the qualtity of an undesirable material which can be removed by a water conditioner between servicing of the media, i.e., cleaning, regeneration or replacement, as determined under standard test conditions.


California Air Pollution Control Officers Association.


Corrective Action Report.


carcinogenic effects.


California Air Resources Board.

carbon adsorption

activated carbon contained in a vessel and installed in either a gas or liquid stream to remove organic contaminants. Carbon is regenerable when subject to steam, which forces contaminant to desorb from carbon.

carbon dioxide

a colorless, odorless non-poisonous gas normally part of ambient air, a result of fossil fuel combustion.

carbon monoxide

a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas produced by incomplete fossil fuel combustion.

carbonate hardness

that hardness in a water caused by bicarbonates and carbonates of calcium and magnesium. If alkalinity exceeds total hardness, all hardness is carbonate hardness; if hardness exceeds alkalinity, the carbonate hardness equals the alkalinity.


a material that either causes cancer in humans, or, because it causes cancer in animals, is considered capable of causing cancer in humans. Findings are based on the feeding of large quantities of a material to test animals or by the application of concentrated solutions to the animals' skin. A material is considered a carcinogen if (1) the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has evaluated it and found it to be a carcinogen or potential carcinogen; (2) the National Toxicology Program's (NTP) Annual Report on Carcinogens lists it as a carcinogen or potential carcinogen; (3) OSHA regulates it as a carcinogen; or (4) one positive study has been published. "Select Carcinogen" is defined in 29 CFR 1910, within OSHA's standard "Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories," as a substance: a) OSHA regulates as a carcinogen; b) the NTP lists as "Known to be carcinogens;" c) the IARC lists as Group 1, "carcinogenic to humans;" d) the IARC lists as Group 2A or 2B, "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens," since it causes statistically significant tumor incidence in animals per criteria listed in section 2, paragraph b.




A prefix that refers to the heart.


A term indicating the heart and blood vessels.

carrying capacity

1. In recreation, the amount of use a recreation area can sustain without deterioration of its quality.2. In wildlife, the maximum number of animals an area can support during a given period of the year.


the presence of boiler water in steam caused by foaming or entrainment.


Corrective Action Reporting System.


Chemical Abstracts Service.


Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee.


FIFRA and TSCA Case Tracking System.


a thick-walled container (usually lead) used to transport radioactive material. Also called a coffin.

CAS Registration number, CAS, CAS RN

An assigned number used to identify a material. CAS stands for Chemical Abstracts Service, an organization that indexes information published in Chemical Abstracts by the American Chemical Society and that provides index guides by which information about particular substances may be located in the abstracts. Sequentially assigned CAS numbers identify specific chemicals. The numbers have no chemical significance. The CAS number is a concise, unique means of material identification. (Chemical Abstracts Service,Division of American Chemical Society, Box 3012 , Columbus , OH 43210 ; (614) 421-3600).


addition of material (catalyst) that does not take a direct part in a chemical reaction but increases the rate of the reaction.


a substance that modifies (slows or quickens) a chemical reaction without being consumed.

catalytic converter

an air pollution abatement device that removes organic contaminants by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water.

catalytic incinerator

a control device which oxidizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using a catalyst to promote the combustion process. Catalytic incinerators require lower temperatures than conventional thermal incinerators, with resultant fuel and cost savings.


fish that swim downstream to spawn.


a loss of transparency in the eye's crystalline lens or it capsule.

categorical exclusion

a class of actions which either individually or cumulatively would not have a significant effect on the human environment and therefore would not require preparation of an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

categorical pretreatment standard

a technology-based effluent limitation for an industrial facility which discharges into a municipal sewer system. Analogous in stringency to Best Availability Technology (BAT) for direct dischargers.


in electrolysis or electrochemical corrosion, a site on a surface where cations in solution are neutralized by electrons to become elements that either plate out on the surface or react with water to produce a secondary reaction.

cathodic protection

a technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by making that surface the cathode of an electro-chemical cell.For example, a tank system can be cathodically protected through the application of either galvanic anodes or impressed current.

cathodic protection tester

means a person who can demonstrate an understanding of the principles and measurements of all common types of cathodic protection systems as applied to buried or submerged metal piping and tank systems. At a minimum, such persons must have education and experience in soil resistivity, stray current, structure-to-soil potential, and component electrical isolation measurements of buried metal piping and tank systems.


positively charged ions in a solution.

cation exchange

Ion exchange process in which cations in solution are exchanged for other cations from an ion exchanger.


the condition of a polymer, colloid, or large particle having exchangeable anions on its surface and an opposite, positive charge on the substrate.


Corrective Action Tracking System.


Carbon Absorption Unit.


capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action. Applies to strong bases and characterized by the presence of hydroxyl ions in solution. See alkali.

caustic soda

sodium hydroxide, a strong alkaline substance used as the cleaning agent in some detergents. A common water treatment chemical, sodium hydroxide (lye).


Cost Benefit Analysis.


Commerce Business Daily.


Confidential Business Information.


Closed cup. Used to test flash points.


Carbon Copy.


Fluoride Remover Reagent (ETUS).


Competition in Contraction Act.


Canadian Clean Air Act.


Center for Clean Air Policy.


Conventional Combustion Environment Assessment.


Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes.


Confidential Chemicals Identification System.


Composite Correction Plan.


Centers for Disease Control.


Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin.


Chlorinated Dibenzofuran.


Case Development Inspection.


Compliance Evaluation Inspection.


Chronic Daily Intake.


Climatological Dispersion Model.


Comprehensive Data Management.


Compliance Data System.


Categorical Exclusion.


Cooperative Enforcement Agreement.


Cost and Economic Assessment.


Council of Economic Advisors.


Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling.


Canadian Environmental Assessment Research Council.


Contractor Evidence Audit Team.


Chemical Element Balance.


Commission of European Communities.


Center for Environmental Education.


Center for Energy and Environmental Management.


Compliance Evaluation Inspection.

ceiling limit, C

the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. "An employee's exposure (to a hazardous material) shall at no time exceed the ceiling value" (OSHA). See TLV-Ceiling Limit.


Canadian Environmental Law Research Foundation.


1) in solid waste disposal, holes where waste is dumped, compacted and covered with layers of dirt daily. 2) the smallest structural part of living matter capable of functioning as an independent unit.


see degree C. Celsius is preferred.

centimeter, cm

1/100 meter. A cm = 0.4 in.


a cgs unit of the measure of viscosity equal to 1/100 poise. The viscosity of water at 20 degrees C is almost 1 centipoise.

central nervous system

the portion of the nervous system consisting of brain and spinal cord. Both sensory and motor impulses.


the liquid remaining after removal of solids as a cake in a centrifuge.

centrifugal collector

a mechanical system using centrifugal force to remove aerosols from a gas stream or to dewater sludge.

centrifuge capacity factor

bowl area expressed as the area of a gravity settling tank with an equivalent clarification capability with that of the centrifuge.


Chemical Emergency Preparedness Plan.


Chemical Emergency Planning and Response Commission.


Council on Environmental Quality.


California Environmental Quality Act


Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Act (1980, 1986); also Superfund; federal law authorizing identification and remediation of unsupervised hazardous waste sites. CERCLA is cynically referred to as "the Comprehensive Employment for Regulators, Consultants and Lawyers Act."


is the abbreviation of the CERCLA Information System, EPA's comprehensive data base and management system that inventories and tracks releases addressed or needing to be addressed by the Superfund program. CERCLIS contains the official inventory of CERCLA sites and supports EPA's site planning and tracking functions. Sites that EPA decides do not warrant moving further in the site evaluation process are given a "No Further Response Action Planned" (NFRAP) designation in CERCLIS. This means that no additional federal steps under CERCLA will be taken at the site unless future information so warrants. Sites are not removed from the database after completion of evaluations in order to document that these evaluations took place and to preclude the possibility that they be needlessly repeated.Inclusion of a specific site or area in the CERCLIS database does not represent a determination of any party's liability, nor does it represent a finding that any response action is necessary. Sites that are deleted from the NPL are not designated NFRAP sites. Deleted sites are listed in a separate category in the CERCLIS database.


Center for Environmental Research Information.


Certificate of Eligibility.

Cesium (Cs)

a silver-white, soft ductile element of the alkali metal group that is the most electropositive element known.Used especially in photoelectric cells.


Conditionally Exempt Small Quality Generator.


Conservation Foundation.


chlorofluorocarbon; family of chemical substances used as refrigerants and solvents; widely believed to be associated with depletion of Earth's ozone layer.




United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). It is a publication of the regulations that have been promulgated under United States Law. The CFR is divided into titles. The following titles may be useful when following this guideline: Title 29- Contains OSHA Hazard Communication Standard and other OSHA regulations Title 40- Contains Environmental Protection Agency regulations, including TSCA Title 49- Contains Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Changes to the regulations are published in the Federal Register. These publications can be ordered through the US Government Printing Office.


cubic feet per second, a measure of the amount of water passing a given point.


Combustible Gas Indicator.


Comprehensive General Liability.


Committee on Hearing and Bio-Acoustics.


Community Health Air Monitoring Program.


the flow of water or solution taking the "line of least resistance" through a resin bed.


to straighten and deepen streams so water will move faster, a flood reduction or marsh drainage tactic that can interfere with waste assimilation capacity and disturb fish habitat.


any one of the four categories used in defining hazardous waste; ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity.


Cooling Water Treatment (ETUS).

chelating agents

Organic compounds having the ability to withdraw ions from their water solutions into soluble complexes.


OSHA defines a chemical as any element, chemical compound or mixture of elements and/or compounds.

chemical agents

means those elements, compounds, or mixtures that coagulate, disperse, dissolve, emulsify, foam, neutralize, precipitate, reduce, solubilize, oxidize, concentrate, congeal, entrap, fix, make the pollutant mass more rigid or viscous, or otherwise facilitate the mitigation of deleterious effects or the removal of the pollutant from the water.

chemical cartridge respirator

a respirator using various chemical substances to purify inhaled air of certain contaminative gases and vapors. Typically effective for concentrations no more than 10 times the TLV for a half facepiece and 100 times the TLV for a full face- piece, provided the contaminant has warning properties (odor or irritation) near the TLV.

chemical family

a group of single elements or compounds with a common general name. E.g., acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) are of the ketone family; acrolein, furfural, and acetaldehyde are of the aldehyde family.

chemical formula

gives the number and kind of atoms that comprise a molecule of a material. The chemical formula of water is HàO. Each molecule of water is made up of 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 of oxygen.

chemical hygiene officer

Per 29 CFR 1910; OSHA regulation, "Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories." The designated, qualified employee who assists in the development and implementation of the CHP. See CHP.

chemical manufacturer

An employer with a workplace where chemical(s) are produced for use or distribution.

chemical name

the scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify the chemical for the purpose of conducting a hazard evaluation.

chemical pneumonitis

inflammation of the lungs caused by accumulation of fluids due to chemical irritation.

chemical oxidation

addition of chemical agents to wastewater for the purpose of oxidizing pollutant material.

chemical oxygen demand (COD)

amount of oxygen in milligrams per liter to oxidize both organic and oxidizable inorganic compounds.

chemical precipitation

a chemical process in which a chemical in solution reacts with another chemical introduced to that solution to form a third substance which is partially or mainly insoluble and, therefore, appears as a solid.

chemical reactivity

the ability of a material to chemically change. Undesirable and dangerous effects such as heat, explosion, or the production of noxious substances can result.

chemical treatment

any one of a variety of technologies that use chemicals or a variety of chemical processes to treat waste.

chemicals of potential concern

chemicals that are potentially site-related and whose data are of sufficient quality for use in the quantitative risk assessment.


emission of light during a noncombustible chemical reaction.


a chemical that controls pests by preventing reproduction.


Chemical Transportation Emergency Center . Established in Washington , DC , by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) to provide emergency information on materials involved in transportation accidents. Twenty-four-hour number: (800) 424-9300. In Washington , DC , Alaska , and Hawaii call (202) 483-7616.


Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System.

chilling effect

the lowering of the Earth's temperature because of increased particles in the air blocking the Sun's rays.


Chemical Hazard Information Profile.


Chemical Hazard Information Profile System.


an acne like eruption caused by excessive contact with certain compounds.

chlorinated hydrocarbons

a class of persistent, broad-spectrum insecticides, notably DDT, that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Other examples are aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, chlordane, lindane, endrin, mirex, benzene, hexachloride, and toxaphene.

chlorinated solvent

an organic solvent containing chlorine atoms, e.g., methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloromethane, which are used in aerosol spray containers and in traffic paint.


the application of chlorine to drinking water, sewage, or industrial waste to disinfect or to oxidize undesirable components.


a device that adds chlorine to water in gas or liquid form.


a gas, Clà, widely used in the disinfection of water and an oxidizing agent for organic matter, iron, etc.

chlorine-contact chamber

the part of a waste treatment plant where effluent is disinfected by chlorine before being discharged.

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

a family of inert, nontoxic, and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, or as solvents and aerosol propellants. Because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere, they drift into the upper atmosphere where their chlorine components destroy ozone.


discoloration of normally green plant parts that can be caused by disease, lack of nutrients, or various air pollutants.

CHP, Chemical Hygiene Plan

per 29 CFR 1910, OSHA standard; Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories." Effective 5/1/90. A written plan that includes specific work practices, standard operating procedures, equipment, engineering controls, and policies to ensure that employees are protected from hazardous exposure levels to all potentially hazardous chemicals in use in their work area. This OSHA standard provides for training, employee access to information, medical consultations, examinations, hazard identification procedures, respirator use, and record keeping practices.


Chemical Hazard Response Information System.


see heavy metals.


long-lasting or frequently recurring, as a disease.

chronic health effect

an adverse effect on a human or animal body with symptoms that develop slowly over a long period of time or that recur frequently. See Acute Health Effect.

chronic RfD

an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude or greater) of a lifetime daily exposure level for the human population, including sensitive subpopulations, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects. Chronic RfDs are specifically developed to be protective for long-term exposure to a compound (7 years to lifetime).

chronic toxicity

the capacity of a substance to cause long-term poisonous human health effects. (See: Acute Toxicity).


County Hazardous Waste Management Plan.


Council on Indoor Air Quality.


Competition in Contracting Act.


Chemicals in Commerce Information System.


Certified Industrial Hygienist.


Chemical Information System.


California Integrated Waste Management Board.


as defined by section 101(4) of CERCLA, means a demand in writing for a sum certain.


composite wastewater treatment process consisting of flash mixing of coagulants, pH adjusting chemicals, and/or polyelectrolytes, flocculation and sedimentation.


a unit which provides for settling and removal of solids from wastewater.


by backwash to obtain a resin bed which is graduated in resin size from coarse on the bottom to fine on the top.


Giving rise to or inducing disruption or breakages, as of chromosomes. EXAMPLE LAY LANGUAGE: Causes damage to genetic material.


aluminum silicates less than 0.002mm (2.0 um) in size.Therefore, most clay types can go into colloidal suspension.


Capacity Limiting Constituents.


Cationic Flocculant Powder - Clarification/Settling (ETUS).


Comprehensive Long Term Environmental Action Navy.


Boiler Cleaner - Boiling Water Treatment (ETUS).


Clinical Laboratory for Evaluation and Assessment of Noxious Substances.


actions taken to deal with a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance that could affect humans and/or the environment. The term "cleanup" is sometimes used interchangeably with the terms remedial action, removal action, response action, or corrective action.

clear cut

a forest management technique that involves harvesting all the trees in one area at one time. Under certain soil and slope conditions it can contribute sediment to water pollution.


Clinical Laboratory for Evaluation and Validation of Epidermiologic Research.


Conservation Law Foundation.


Chemical List Index and Processing System.


in biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell. This term has assumed a more general meaning that includes making copies of a gene.


Closed Cooling Water - Cooling Water Treatment (ETUS).

closed-loop recycling

reclaiming or reusing wastewater for non- potable purposes in an enclosed process.

closed system

System (Equipment or apparatus) designed and used so that there is no release of the chemicals into the surroundings.Closed systems are indicated as a means to control exposures to hazardous materials or to conditions which would pose a physical hazard.


Contract Laboratory Program; EPA program of analytical and testing support for SUPERFUND using private contractors.


Contract Lab System.


a term coined by John Lindstedt of Artistic Plating to denote good floc formation. (i.e. "it clumps up nicely").


Corrective Measure.


California Manufacturers Association.


Chemical Manufacturers Association.


Chemical Mass Balance.


Chelate Modifier (ETUS).


Comprehensive Ground Water Monitoring Evaluation.


Compliance Monitoring Evaluation Log.


Comprehensive Monitoring Evaluation Log.


Comprehensive Monitoring Evaluation List.


Contaminated Materials Handling Plan.


Corrective Measures Implementation.


Chelator Modifier (ETUS).


Corrective Measures Study.


Compressed Natural Gas.


Bioremediation Nutrient (ETUS).

CNS, central nervous system

indicates effects on the CNS by the material, including headache, tremors, drowsiness, convulsions, hypnosis, anesthesia, nervousness, irritability, narcosis, dizziness, fatigue, lethargy, peripheral memopathy, memory loss, impaired concentration, sleep disturbance, etc.


carbon monoxide. A colorless, odorless, flammable, and very toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon compounds and as a byproduct of many chemical processes. A chemical asphyxiant, it reduces the blood's ability to carry oxygen.Hemoglobin absorbs CO 200 times more readily than it does oxygen.


Change Order.


Carbon dioxide. A heavy, colorless gas produced by the combustion and decomposition of organic substances and as a byproduct of many chemical processes. COà does not burn and is relatively nontoxic and unreactive. High concentrations, especially in confined places, can create hazardous oxygen- deficient environments that can cause asphyxiation. COà is 1.5 times as heavy as air, making it useful as a fire- extinguishing agent to block oxygen and smother a fire.


a chemical reaction in which polyvalent ions neutralize the repulsive charges surrounding colloidal particles.The clumping together of solids to make them settle out of solution faster. Coagulation of solids is brought about with the use of certain chemicals, such as lime, alum or polymers.

coagulation chemicals

hydrolyzable divalent and trivalent metallic ions of aluminum (Al3+), magnesium (Mg2+) and iron (Fe3+) salts. They include alum (aluminum sulfate: Al2 (So4) 3.14 HàO), quicklime (calcium oxide: CaOà), sulfuric acid (HàSO4), anhydrous ferric chloride (FeCl3). Lime and acid affect only the solution pH which in turn causes coagulant precipitation, such as that of magnesium.

coagulation and flocculation

process which follow sequentially and are distinguished primarily by the types of chemicals used for their initiation and the size of the particles developed.Coagulation is the conversion of finely dispersed colloids into small floc upon the addition of electrolytes such as inorganic acids, bases and salts.


the gathering together of coagulated colloidal liquid particles into a single continuous phase.

coastal waters

for the purposes of classifying the size of discharges, means the waters of the coastal zone except for the Great Lakes and specified ports and harbors on inland rivers.

coastal zone

ocean waters and adjacent lands that exert an influence on the uses of the sea and its ecology. As defined for the purpose of the NCP, means all United States waters subject to the tide, United States waters of the Great Lakes, specified ports and harbors on inland rivers, waters of the contiguous zone, other waters of the high seas subject to the NCP, and the land surface or land substrata, ground waters, and ambient air proximal to those waters. The term coastal zone delineates an area of federal responsibility for response action. Precise boundaries are determined by EPA/USCG agreements and identified in federal regional contingency plans.


Chain of Custody.


see chemical oxygen demand.

Code of Federal Regulations

See CFR.

coefficient of haze (COH)

a measurement of visibility interference in the atmosphere.

coefficient of water/oil distribution

also called the partition coefficient, it is the ratio of the solubility of a chemical in water to its solubility in oil. Used to indicate how easily the human body can absorb or store a material.


a thick-walled container (usually lead) used for transporting radioactive materials.

coliform bacteria

bacteria found in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals and used as indicators of pollution if found in water.

coliform index

a rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal bacteria.

coliform organism

organisms found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, their presence in water indicates pollution and potentially dangerous bacterial contamination.


composed of extremely small size particles which are not removed by normal filtration.


matter of very fine particle size, usually less than Ç micron in size.

color throw

the release of color from an ion exchange resin on soaking or on being used in water treatment.

combined sewers

a sewer system that carries both sewage and storm-water runoff. Normally, its entire flow goes to a waste treatment plant, but during a heavy storm, the storm water volume may be so great as to cause overflows. When this happens, untreated mixtures of storm water and sewage may flow into receiving waters. Storm-water runoff may also carry toxic chemicals from industrial areas or streets into the sewer system.

combustible liquid

-OSHA Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100¿F (37.8¿C), but below 200¿F (93.3¿C), except any mixture having components with flash points of 200¿F (93.3¿C), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 Percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.-DOT A combustible liquid Is defined as any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other DOT classification and has a flash point at or above 100¿F (37.8¿C) and below 200¿F (93.3¿C) except any mixture having one component or more with a flash point at 200¿F (93.3¿C) or higher, that makes up at least 99 percent of the total volume of the mixture.


burning, or a rapid oxidation accompanied by release of energy in the form of heat and light, a basic cause of air pollution.

combustion product

substance produced during the burning or oxidation of a material.

command post

facility located at a safe distance upwind from an accident site, where the on-scene coordinator, responders, and technical representatives can make response decisions, deploy manpower and equipment, maintain liaison with news media, and handle communications.

comment period

time provided for the public to review and comment on a proposed EPA action or rule making after it is published in the Federal Register.


a machine that shreds or pulverizes solids to make waste treatment easier.


mechanical shredding or pulverizing of waste, used in solid waste management and waste water treatment.


a machine that grinds solids to make waste treatment easier.

common laboratory contaminants

certain organic chemicals (considered by EPA to be acetone, 2-butanone, methylene chloride, toluene, and the phthalate esters) that are commonly used in the laboratory and thus may be introduced into a sample from laboratory cross-contamination, not form the site.

common name

A designation for a material other than its chemical name, such as code name or code number or trade, brand, or generic name. Also, the "product identifier" in Canadian law.

community relations

the EPA effort to establish two-way communication with the public to create understanding of EPA programs and related actions, to assure public input into decision-making processes related to affected communities, and to make certain that the Agency is aware of and responsive to public concerns. Specific community relations activities are required in relation to Superfund remedial actions.

community relations coordinator

means lead agency staff who work with the OSC/RPM to involve and inform the public about the Superfund process and response actions in accordance with the interactive community relations requirements set forth in the NCP.

community water system

a public water system which serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.


reduction of the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping.

compatible pollutants

those pollutants which can adequately be treated in publicly owned treatment works without upsetting the treatment process.

compliance coating

a coating whose volatile organic compound content does not exceed that allowed by regulation.

compliance schedule

a negotiated agreement between a pollution source and a government agency that specifies dates and procedures by which a source will reduce emissions and thereby, comply with a regulation.


a constituent part; ingredient.

composite wastewater sample

a combination of individual samples of water or wastewater taken at selected intervals, generally hourly for some specified period, to minimize the effect of the variability of the individual sample. Individual samples may have equal volume or may be proportioned to the flow at time of sampling.


a mixture of garbage and degradable trash with soil in which certain bacteria in the soil break down the garbage and trash into organic fertilizer.


a controlled process of organic breakdown of matter.In mechanical composting the materials are constantly mixed and aerated by a machine. The ventilated cell method mixes and aerates materials by dropping them through a vertical series of aerated chambers. Using windows, composts placed in piles out in the open air and mixed or turned periodically.

compressed gas

-OSHA (i) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40psi at 70¿F (21.1¿C); or (ii) A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute Pressure exceeding 104psi at 130¿F (54.4¿C) regardless of the pressure at 70¿F (21.1¿C); or (iii) A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40psi at 100¿F (37.8¿C) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.-DOT The term "compressed gas" designates any material or mixture having in the container an absolute Pressure exceeding 40psi at 70¿F or, regardless of the pressure at 70¿F, having an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130¿F; or any liquid flammable material having a vapor Pressure exceeding 40psi absolute at 100¿F as determined by ASTM Test D-323.

compressed gas in solution

-DOT A non-liquefied compressed gas which is dissolved in a solvent.




waste water which is sent to the drain from a reverse osmosis (RO) machine.


the process of increasing the dissolved solids per unit volume of solution, usually by evaporation of the liquid; also, the amount of material dissolved in a unit volume of solution.

concentration cell

the connection of two solutions of the same composition but different concentrations by a metal conductor to produce current flow through the circuit.

concentration ratio

in an evaporating water system, the ratio of the concentration of a specific substance in the makeup of its concentration in the evaporated water, usually measured in the blowdown.


water obtained by evaporation and subsequent condensation.

condensate polishers

ion exchange resins being used to remove or exchange ions as well as to filter condensate for reuse in the steam cycle


Boiler Treat - Boiling Water Treatment (ETUS).

conditional registration

under special circumstances, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) permits registration of pesticide products that is "conditional" upon the submission of additional data. These special circumstances include a finding by the EPA Administrator that a new product or use of an existing pesticide will not significantly increase the risk of unreasonable adverse effects. A product containing a new (previously unregistered) active ingredient may be conditionally registered only if the Administrator finds that such conditional registration is in the public interest, that a reasonable time for conducting the additional studies has not elapsed, and the use of the pesticide for the period of conditional registration will not present an unreasonable risk.


the transfer of heat through a body by molecular motion.


the ability of a substance to conduct heat or electricity. Electrical conductivity is usually expressed in microsiemans per centimeter.

conductivity meter

an instrument which displays a quantitative indication of conductance.

confined aquifer

an aquifer in which ground water is confined under pressure that is significantly greater than atmospheric pressure.

congregate care center

refers to a facility where food, shelter, medical care, and counseling are available to evacuees.


Inflammation of the conjunctive, the delicate membrane that lines the eyelid and covers the eyeball.

connate water

fossil water produced with oil.

connected piping

means all underground piping including valves, elbows, joints, flanges, and flexible connectors attached to a tank system through which regulated substances flow. For the purpose of determining how much piping is connected to any individual UST system, the piping that joins two UST systems should be allocated equally between them.

consent decree

a legal document, approved by a judge, that formalizes an agreement reached between EPA and potentially responsible parties (PRPs) through which PRPs will conduct all of part of a cleanup action at a Superfund site; cease or correct actions or processes that are polluting the environment; or otherwise comply with regulations where the PRP's failure to comply caused EPA to initiate regulatory enforcement actions. The consent decree describes the actions PRP's will take and may be subject to a public comment period.


the protection, improvement, and use of natural resources according to principles that will assure their highest economic or social benefits.


in the pulp/paper industry, a term for the density in percent by weight dry matter, of a slurry of pulp.

consumer commodity

-DOT A material that is packaged and distributed in a form intended or suitable for sale through retail sales agencies or instrumentalities for consumption by individuals for purposes of personal care or household use. This term also includes drug and medicines.

Consumer Products Safety Commission


consumptive use

with respect to heating oil means consumed on the premises.

contact pesticide

a chemical that kills pests when it touches them, rather then by being eaten (stomach poison).

contact rate

amount of medium (e.g., ground water, soil) contacted per unit time or event (e.g., liters of water ingested per day).


-OSHA Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical. Pipes and piping systems, and engines, fuel tanks or other operating systems In a vehicle, are not considered to be containers.


any foreign component present in another substance; e.g., anything in water that is not water is a contaminant.


intrusion of undesirable elements. The addition of foreign matter to a substance which reduces the value of the substance, or interferes with its intended use.

contingency plan

a document setting out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to be followed in case of a fire, explosion, or other accident that releases toxic chemicals, hazardous wastes, or radioactive materials which threaten human health or the environment. (See: National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan).

contiguous zone

means the zone of the high seas, established by the United States under Article 24 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, which is contiguous to the territorial sea and which extends nine miles seaward from the outer limit of the territorial sea.

continuous treatment

treatment of waste streams operating without interruption as opposed to batch treatment; sometimes referred to as flow-through treatment.

contour plowing

farming methods that break ground following the shape of the land in a way that discourages erosion.

contract laboratory program

analytical program developed for Superfund waste site samples to fill the need for legally defensible analytical results supported by a high level of quality assurance and documentation.

contract labs

laboratories under contract to EPA, which analyze samples taken from wastes, soil, air, and water or carry out research projects.

contract-required quantitation limit

chemical-specific levels that a CLP laboratory must be able to routinely and reliably detect and quantitate in specified sample matrices. May or may not equal to the reported quantitation limit of a given chemical in a given sample.


long narrow clouds caused when high-flying jets disturb the atmosphere.

control technique guideline

a series of EPA documents designed to assist states in defining reasonable available control technology (RACT) for major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).


refers to those persons whose role is to ensure that the exercise objectives are sufficiently exercised to permit evaluation, that the level of activity keeps players occupied and challenged, and that the pace of the exercise proceeds according to the scenario.


the transfer of heat through a fluid by circulating currents.

conventional filtration treatment

means a series of processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration resulting in substantial particulate removal.

conventional pollutants

statutorily listed pollutants which are understood well by scientists. These may be in the form of organic waste, sediment, acid, bacteria and viruses, nutrients, oil and grease, or heat.

conventional systems

systems that have been traditionally used to collect municipal wastewater in gravity sewers and convey it to a central primary or secondary treatment plant prior to discharge to surface waters.


CWT Treatment - General Purpose - Cooling Water Treatment.


a liquid or gas used to reduce the heat generated by power production in nuclear reactors or electric generators.

cooling tower

a device that aids in heat removal from water used as a coolant in electric power generating plants.

cooperative agreement

is a legal instrument EPA uses to transfer money, property, services, or anything of value to a recipient to accomplish a public purpose in which substantial EPA involvement is anticipated during the performance of the project.

coordinated phosphate

a boiler treatment scheme using phosphate buffers to avoid the presence of hydroxyl alkalinity.


Contracting Officer's Representative.


the uranium-containing heart of a nuclear reactor, where energy is released.


the transparent structure of the external layer of the eyeball.


Army Corps of Engineers.


the dissolving and wearing away of metal caused by a chemical reaction such as between water and the pipes that the water contacts, chemicals touching a metal surface, or contact between two metals.

corrosion expert

means a person who, by reason of thorough knowledge of the physical sciences and the principles of engineering and mathematics acquired by a professional education and related practical experience, is qualified to engage in the practice of corrosion control on buried or submerged metal piping systems and metal tanks. Such a person must be accredited or certified as being qualified by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers or be a registered professional engineer who has certification or licensing that includes education and experience in corrosion control of buried or submerged metal piping systems and metal tanks.

corrosion rate

expressed in inches of steel per year; accompanied by temperature.


a chemical agent that reacts with the surface of a material causing it to deteriorate or wear away.

corrosive material

-OSHA A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. For example, a chemical Is considered to be corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described by the DOT in Appendix A of 49 CFR Part 173, it destroys or changes irreversible the structure of the tissue at the site of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term shall not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.-DOT A corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact, or in the case of leakage from its packaging, a liquid that has severe corrosion rate on steel. (a) A material is considered to be destructive or to cause irreversible alteration in human skin tissue if when tested on the intact skin of the albino rabbit by the technique described by DOT, the structure of the tissue at the site of contact is destroyed or changed irreversible after an exposure period of 4 hours or less. (b) A liquid is considered to have a severe corrosion rate if its corrosion rate exceeds 0.250 inch per year (IPY) on steel (SAE 1020) at a test temperature of 130¿F. An acceptable test is described in NACE Standard TM-01-69. (c) Human experience or other data takes precedence over animal experiments.

cost recovery

a legal process by which potentially responsible parties who contributed to contamination at a Superfund site can be required to reimburse the Trust Fund for money spent during any cleanup actions by the federal government.

cost effective alternative

an alternative control or corrective method identified after analysis as being the best available in terms of reliability, permanence, and economic considerations.Although costs are one important consideration, when regulatory and compliance methods are being considered, such analysis does not require EPA to choose the least expensive alternative. For example, when selecting a method for cleaning up a site on the Superfund National Priorities List, the Agency balances costs with the long term effectiveness of the various methods proposed.


vegetation or other material providing protection.

cover material

soil used to cover compacted solid waste in a sanitary landfill.


Carbamate-restricted Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal.


Organic Sulfur Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Silver Fixer Treatment Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal.


Enhanced Precipitant with Polymer Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Certified Public Accountant.


Specialty Applications Precipitant - Chelator Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Cost Plus Award Fee.


Chemical Protective Clothing.


Carcinogenic Potency Factor.


Nickel Breaker Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Inorganic Catalyzed Organic Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.


Consumer Product Safety Act.


Consumer Products Safety Commission. A Federal agency responsible for regulating hazardous materials when they are used in consumer goods per the Hazardous Substances Act and Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970.


General Purpose Precipitant - Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Construction Quality Assurance.


Carcinogen Risk Assessment Verification Exercise.


an oil-refining process that breaks large molecules into smaller ones.

crawl space

in some types of houses, which are constructed so that the floor is raised slightly above the ground, an area beneath the floor which allows access to utilities and other services. This is in contrast to slab-on-grade or basement construction houses.


Community Relations Coordinator.


Contamination Reduction Corridor.


Contract-Required Detection Limit.


the standards EPA has established for certain pollutants, which not only limit the concentration, but also set a limit to the number of violations per year.

criteria pollutants

the 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act required EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for certain pollutants known to be hazardous to human health. EPA has identified and set standards to protect human health and welfare for six pollutants; ozone, carbon monoxide, total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, lead, and nitrogen oxide. The term, "criteria pollutants" derives from the requirement that EPA must describe the characteristics and potential health and welfare effects of these pollutants. It is on the basis of these criteria that standards are set or revised.

critical pressure

the pressure at the critical temperature above which the fluid no longer has the properties of a liquid, regardless of further increase in pressure.

critical temperature

a temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied by pressure.


Consolidated Rules of Practice.


intermixing of one resin with another of opposite charge or of two water streams.


the connection between two or more polymer chains to tie them together, as is done by DVB.


Community Relations Plan.


Contract-Required Quantitation Limit.


Cathode Ray Tube.


relating to extremely low temperature as for refrigerated gases.

cryogenic liquid

-DOT A refrigerated liquefied gas having a boiling point colder than -130¿F (-90¿C) at one atmosphere, absolute.


Contamination Reduction Zone.


Caustic Soda Additive (ETUS).


Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.


Council of State Governments.


Conference of State Health and Environmental Managers.


Compliance Sampling Inspection.


Chemical Substances Information Network.

CT or CTcalc

is the product of "residual disinfectant concentration" (C) in mg/l determined before or at the first customer, and the corresponding "disinfectant contact time" (T) in minutes, i.e., "C" x "T". If a public water system applies disinfectants at more than one point prior to the first customer, it must determine the CT of each disinfectant sequence before or at the first customer to determine the total percent inactivation or "total inactivation ratio." In determining the total inactivation ratio, the public water system must determine the residual disinfectant concentration of each disinfection sequence and corresponding contact time before any subsequent disinfection application point(s). "CT99.9" is the CT value required for 99.9 percent (3-log) inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts. CT99.9 for a variety of disinfectants and conditions appear in Tables 1.1-1.6, 2.1, and 3.1 of 141.74(b)(3). CT99.9 is the inactivation ratio. The sum of the inactivation ratios, or total inactivation ratio shown as (CT99.9), is calculated by adding together the inactivation ratio for each disinfection sequence. A total inactivation ratio equal to or greater than 1.0 is assumed to provide a 3-log inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts.

cubic feet per minute (CFM)

a measure of the volume of a sub- stance flowing through air within a fixed period of time.With regard to indoor air, refers to the amount of air, in cubic feet, that is exchanged with indoor air in a minute's time, or an air exchange rate.

cultural eutrophication

increasing the rate at which water bodies "die" by pollution from human activities.


Cumulative effects.

cumulative working level months (CWLM)

the sum of lifetime exposure to radon working levels expressed in total working level months.


a furnace for melting scrap or pig iron with coke.


a quantitative measure of radioactivity equal to 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second.


pertaining to the skin.


an instrument used to measure radiation levels.


cardiovascular effects.


Clean Water Act. Public Law PL 92-500. Found at 40 CFR 100-140 and 400-470. Effective November 18, 1972, and amended significantly since then. EPA and Army Corps of Engineers have jurisdiction. CWA regulates the discharge of nontoxic and toxic pollutants into surface waters. Its ultimate goal is to eliminate all discharges into surface waters. Its interim goal is to make surface waters usable for fishing, swimming, etc. EPA sets guidelines, and states issue permits (NPDES, Natural Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit) specifying the types of control equipment and discharges for each facility.


Clean Water Action Project.


California Waste Management Board.


California Water Pollution Control Association.


Centralized Waste Treatment.


Chemical Waste Transportation Council.

cyanosis, cyanotic

a dark purplish coloration of the skin and the mucous membrane caused by lack of oxygen utilization by the body.

cycles of concentration

concentration ratio.

cyclone collector

a device that uses centrifugal force to pull large particles from polluted air.


Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972.




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