Operation and Maintenance.


refers to a part of an audience who are spectators only.


an absorption process by which one solid material adheres strongly to another, sometimes occurring by coprecipitation.

occupational exposure

see Action Level.

Occupational Safety and Health Act

see OSH Act.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

see OSHA.


Offshore and Coastal Dispersion Model.


Organizational Conflicts of Interest.


organic chemicals, plastics and synthetic fibers.


Optical Character Reader.


Outer Continental Shelf.


Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act.


Organizational Development.


Outside Diameter.

odor threshold

the lowest concentration of a material's vapor (or a gas) in air that is detectable by odor.


Demulsifier oil/water (ETUS).


Occupational Exposure Limit. See Exposure Limits.


Original Equipment Manufacturer.


Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.


Optional Form.

off-road vehicles

forms of motorized transportation that do not require prepared surfaces -- they can be used to reach remote areas.

offshore facility

as defined by section 101(17) of CERCLA and section 311(a)(11) of the CWA, means any facility of any kind located in, on, or under any of the navigable waters of the United States and any facility of any kind which is subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and is located in, on, or under any other waters, other than a vessel or a public vessel.

off-site facility

a hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal area that is located at a place away from the generating site.


Oil and Gas.


a unit of resistance to the passage of electric current.


as defined by section 311(a)(1) of the CWA, means oil of any kind or in any form, including, but not limited to, petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes other than dredged spoil.

oil fingerprinting

a method that identifies sources of oil and allows spills to be traced back to their source.

oil spill

accidental discharge into bodies of water, can be controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment, and absorption.

oil "fingerprinting"

a method that identifies oil spills so they can be traced back to their sources.

oil pollution fund

means the fund established by section 311(k) of the CWA.

oligotrophic lakes

deep clear lakes with low nutrient supplies. They contain little organic matter and have a high dissolved oxygen level.


scanty or low volume of urine.


Operation and Maintenance.


Office of Management and Budget; advisory body to the Executive Office of the President on budgetary administration.


a substance that causes tumors, whether benign or malignant.

on-scene coordinator (OSC)

the predesignated EPA, Coast Guard, or Department of Defense official who coordinates and directs Superfund removal actions of the Clean Water Act and oil-or hazardous-spill corrective actions.

onshore facility

as defined by section 101(18) of CERCLA, means any facility (including, but not limited to, motor vehicles and rolling stock) of any kind located in, on, or under any land or non-navigable waters within the United States; and, as defined by section 311(a)(10) of the CWA, means any facility (including, but not limited to, motor vehicles and rolling stock) of any kind located in, on, or under any land within the United States other than submerged land.


means on the same or geographically contiguous property which may be divided by public or private right(s)-of-ways, provided by the entrance and exit between the properties is at a cross-roads, intersection, and access is by crossing as opposed to going along the right(s)-of-way. Non-contiguous properties owned by the same person but connected by a right-of-way which the person controls and to which the public does not have access, is also considered on-site property.

on-site facility

a hazardous water treatment, storage or disposal area that is located on the generating site.


with respect to heating oil means UST systems located on the same property where the stored heating oil is used.


a substance that causes tumors, whether benign or malignant.




the amount of light obscured by particulate pollution in the air; clear window glass has zero opacity a brick wall 100% opacity. Opacity is used as an indicator of changes in performance of particulate matter pollution control systems.


impervious to light rays.

open burning

uncontrolled fires in an open dump.

open dump

specifically, any facility or site where solid waste is disposed of which is not a sanitary landfill which meets the Criteria listed in 40 CFR Part 257 ("Subtitle D Criteria and which is not a facility for the disposal of hazardous waste. an uncovered site used for disposal of waste without environmental controls. (See: dump).

open space

a relatively undeveloped green or wooded area provided usually within an urban development to minimize feelings of congested living.

operable unit

term for each of a number of separate activities undertaken as part of a Superfund site cleanup. A typical operable unit would be removing drums and tanks from the surface of a site.

operational life

refers to the period beginning when installation of the tank system has commenced until the time the tank system is properly closed under Subpart G.

operation and maintenance

(1) activities conducted at a site after a Superfund site action is completed to ensure that the action is effective and operating properly. (2) Actions taken after construction to assure that facilities constructed to treat waste water will be properly operated, maintained, and managed to achieve efficiency levels and prescribed effluent limitations in a optimum manner.

operation and maintenance costs

cost of running the wastewater treatment equipment. This includes labor costs, material and supply, energy and power costs.


the person responsible for the overall operation of a facility, or having responsibility for, the daily operation of the UST system.


Used in or taken Into the body through the mouth.


a mineral containing useful substances which can be extracted.


referring to or derived from living organisms.In chemistry, any compound containing carbon.

organic chemicals/compounds

animal or plant-produced substances containing mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

organic compound

any substance that contains the element carbon, with the exception of carbon dioxide and various carbonates.

organic materials

compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and other elements with chain or ring structures.

organic matter

carbonaceous waste contained in plant or animal matter and originated from domestic or industrial sources.

organic peroxide

a compound containing the bivalent - O-O - structure and which is a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide (HàOà) where one or both hydrogen atoms has been replaced by an organic radical.


any living thing.


pesticide chemicals that contain phosphorus, used to control insects. They are short-lived but some can be toxic when first applied.


chemical compounds used in anti-foulant paints to protect the hulls of boats and ships, buoys, and dock pilings from marine organisms such as barnacles.


an opening through which a fluid can pass; a restriction placed in a pipe to provide a means of measuring flow.


other regulated material. DOT hazard classification of a particular hazardous material to label it in transport. ORM-A: materials with an anesthetic, irritating, noxious, toxic, or other property whose leakage can cause extreme discomfort to transportation personnel. ORM-B: materials (including solids wet with water) that can cause damage to a vehicle if they leak. ORM-E: materials that are not in any other hazard classification but are subject to DOT regulations.


An ORM-A material is a material which has an anesthetic, irritating, noxious, toxic, or other similar property and which can cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to passenger and crew in the even of leakage during transportation.


An ORM-B material is a material (including a solid when wet with water) capable of causing significant damage to a transport vehicle from leakage during transportation. Materials meeting one or both of the following criteria are ORM-B materials: 1. A liquid substance that has a corrosion rate exceeding 0.250 inch per year (IPY) on aluminum (nonclad 7075-T6) at a test temperature of 130 ¿F. An acceptable test is described in NACE Standard TM-01-69.2. Specifically designated by name in the Hazardous Materials Table; (49 CFR 172.101).


An ORM-C material is a material which has other inherent characteristics not described as an ORM-A or ORM-B but which make it unsuitable for shipment, unless properly identified and prepared for transportation. Each ORM-C material is specifically named in the Hazardous Materials Table (49 CFR 172.101)


An ORM-D material is a material such as a consumer commodity which though otherwise subject to the DOT regulations, presents a limited hazard during transportation due to its form, quantity and packaging.


An ORM-E is a material that is not included in any other hazard class, but is subject to transportation regulations.Materials in this class include: 1. Hazardous waste.2. Hazardous substances.


Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


Oxidation Reduction Potential. See "Redox potential."


On-Scene Coordinator


Oklahoma State Department of Health.


Occupational Safety and Health Administration; oversees and regulates workplace health and safety; and


Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970); law calling for establishment of the administrative OSHA body.


the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Effective April 28, 1971. Public Law 91-596. Found at 29 CFR 1910, 1915, 1918, 1926. OSHA jurisdiction. The regulatory vehicle to ensure the safety and health of workers in firms larger than 10 employees. Its goal is to set standards of safety that prevent injury and illness among the workers. Regulating employee exposure and informing employees of the dangers of materials are key factors. This act established the Hazard Communication Rule (29 CFR 1910, 1200). See Hazard Communication Rule for details.

OSHA flammable/combustible liquid classification

(29 CFR 191.106).Flammable/combustible liquid is a standard classification used to identify the risks of fire or explosion associated with a liquid. Class I Flammable A Liquids (with a flash point below 100 degrees F (38 degrees C) are divided into the following: class IA-flash point below 73 degrees F (22.8 degrees C), boiling point below 100 degrees F (38 degrees C); class IB-flash point below 73 degrees F (22.8 degrees C), boiling point at or above 100 degrees F (38 degrees C); and class IC-flash point at or above 73 degrees F (22.8 degrees C), boiling point below 100 degrees F (38 degrees C). Combustible liquids (with a flash point at or above 100 degrees F) are divided into two classes; class II, with flash point at or above 100 degrees F (38 degrees C) and below 140 degrees F (60 degrees C), except any mixture having components with flash points of 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C) or higher, the volume of which makes up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture; and class III, with flash point at or above 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). Class III liquids are divided into two subclasses; class IIIA, with flash point at or above 140 degrees F (60 degrees C) and below 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C) except any mixture having components with flash points of 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C) or higher, the volume of which makes up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture; and class IIIB, with flash point at or above 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C).


Office of Surface Mining.


the tendency of a fluid to pass through a permeable membrane, as the wall of a living cell, into a less concentrated solution, so as to equalize concentrations on both sides of the membrane.


Office of Science and Technology Policy.


Operating System/Virtual Storage.


Office of Solid Waste.


Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.


Office of Technology Assessment.


Office of Underground Storage Tanks.


the place where an effluent is discharged into receiving waters.


Organic Vapor Analyzer.


the rock and soil cleared away before mining.

overfill release

is a release that occurs when a tank is filled beyond its capacity, resulting in a discharge of the regulated substance to the environment.

overfire air

air forced into the top of an incinerator to fan the flame.

overland flow

a land application technique that cleanses waste water by allowing it to flow over a sloped surface. As the water flows over the surface, the contaminants are removed and the water is collected at the bottom of the slope for reuse.


the period of mixing (turnovers), by top to bottom circulation, of previously stratified water masses. This phenomenon may occur in spring and/or fall; the result is a uniformity of physical and chemical properties of the water at all depths.


the person who owns a facility or part of a facility.


means: (a) in the case of an UST system in use on November 8, 1984, or brought into use after that date, any person who owns an UST system used for storage, use, or dispensing of regulated substances; and (b) in the case of any UST system in use before November 8, 1984, but no longer in use on that date, any person who owned such UST immediately before the discontinuation of its use.


Office of Waste Programs Enforcement.


a substance containing oxygen that reacts chemically in air to produce a new substance; primary source of photochemical smog.


(1) the addition of oxygen which breaks down organic waste or chemicals such as cyanides, phenols, and organic sulfur compounds in sewage by bacterial and chemical means.(2) Oxygen combining with other elements. (3) The process in chemistry whereby electrons are removed from a molecule.

oxidation pond

a man-made lake or body of water in which waste is consumed by bacteria. It is used most frequently with other waste-treatment processes. An oxidation pond is basically the same as a sewage lagoon.

oxide pox

dermatitis caused by contact with oxides under poor personal hygienic conditions.


the DOT defines an oxidizer or oxidizing material as a substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion (oxidation) of organic matter. Chlorate (ClO), permanganate (MnO), and nitrate (NO) compounds are examples of oxidizers.Note that they all contain oxygen (O).

oxidizing agent

a chemical or substance that brings about an oxidation reaction. The agent may (1) provide the oxygen to the substance being oxidized (in which case the agent has to be oxygen or contain oxygen), or (2) receive electrons being transferred from the substance undergoing oxidation. (Chlorine is a good oxidizing agent for electron-transfer purposes, even though it contains no oxygen).See Reducing Agent.


Boiler Feedwater Treatment - Deoxidizer (ETUS).

oxygenated solvent

an organic solvent containing oxygen as part of the molecular structure. Alcohols and ketones are oxygenated compounds often used as paint solvents.


a device that adds ozone to water.

ozone (O3)

Found in two layers of the atmosphere, the stratosphere and the troposphere. In the stratosphere (the atmospheric layer beginning 7 to 10 miles above the earth's surface) ozone is a form of oxygen found naturally which provides a protective layer shielding the earth from ultraviolet radiation's harmful health effects on humans and the environment.In the troposphere (the layer extending up 7 to 10 miles from the earth's surface), ozone is a chemical oxidant and major component of photochemical smog. Ozone can seriously affect the human respiratory system and is one of the most prevalent and widespread of all the criteria pollutants for which the Clean Air Act required EPA to set standards. Ozone in the troposphere is produced through complex chemical reactions of nitrogen oxides, which are among the primary pollutants emitted by combustion sources; hydrocarbons, released into the atmosphere through the combustion, handling and processing of petroleum products; and sunlight.

ozone depletion

destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer which shields the earth from ultraviolet radiation harmful to biological life. This destruction of ozone is caused by the breakdown of certain chlorine and/or bromine containing compounds (chlorofluorocarbons or halons) which break down when they reach the stratosphere and catalytically destroy ozone molecules.






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