Sunshine Act.


Sampling and Analysis.


Surveillance and Analysis.


Science Advisory Board.


(abbr.) strongly acidic cation resin.


Support Agency Coordinator (SARA).


Suspended and Canceled Pesticides.


Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model.


Silicone Antifoam (ETUS).


Silicone Antifoam (ETUS).

Safety Officer

refers to a person responsible for monitoring and assessing safety hazards or unsafe situations and developing measures for ensuring personnel safety.

Saint Andrew's Cross. X

used in packaging for transport; means harmful - stow away from foodstuffs. (IMO, Material Class 6.1, Group III).


the degree of salt in water.


the ability of an anion exchanger to convert a salt solution to caustic; the ability of a cation exchanger to convert a salt solution to acid.

salt water intrusion

the invasion of fresh surface or ground water by salt water. If the salt water comes from the ocean it's called sea water intrusion.


minerals that water picks up as it passes through the air, over and under the ground, and as it is used by households and industry.


the utilization of waste materials.


Society of American Military Engineers.

Sample Management Office

EPA contractor providing management, operational, and administrative support to the CLP to facilitate optimal use of the program.

sampling and analysis plan

consists of a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and a Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

sand filters

devices that remove some suspended solids from sewage. Air and bacteria decompose additional wastes filtering through the sand so that cleaner water drains from the bed.

sand filtration

a process of filtering wastewater through sand.The wastewater trickles over the bed of sand where air and bacteria decompose the wastes. The clean water flows out through drains in the bottom of the bed. The sludge accumulating at the surface must periodically be removed from the bed.


Sulfur and Nitrogen Emissions.

sanitary landfill, landfilling

protecting the environment when disposing of solid waste. Waste is spread in thin layers, compacted by heavy machinery and covered with soil daily.

sanitary sewers

underground pipes that carry only domestic or commercial waste, not stormwater.

sanitary survey

an on site review of the water sources, facilities, equipment, operation and maintenance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of those elements for producing and distributing safe drinking water.


control of physical factors in the human environment that can harm development, health, or survival.


System Sanitizer - Cooling Water Treatment (ETUS).


Structure and Nomenclature Search System.


Sampling and Analysis Plan.


Scientific Advisory Panel.


to convert (a fat) into soap by treating with an alkali; hence, to decompose (any ester) with the formation of a corresponding alcohol and acid or salt.


Start Action Request.


Supplied-Air Respirator.


Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (1986); federal law reauthorizing and expanding the jurisdiction of CERCLA. Signed into law October 17, 1986. Title III of SARA is known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right- to-Know Act of 1986. It is a revision and extension of CERCLA.SARA is intended to encourage and support local and state emergency planning efforts. It provides citizens and local governments with information about potential chemical hazards in their communities. SARA calls for facilities that store hazardous materials to provide officials and citizens with data on the types (flammables, corrosives, etc.); amounts on hand (daily, yearly); and their specific locations. Facilities are to prepare and submit inventory lists. MSDSs, and tier 1 and 2 inventory forms. The disaster in Bhopal , India , in 1987 added impetus to the passage of this law.


section of SARA requiring public disclosure of chemical information and development of emergency response plans.


to oversee LEPC activities within a state.


Special Analytical Services.


Source Assessment Sampling System.


Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves.


the maximum amount of a substance that can be put into solution (maximum capacity).

saturated vapor concentration

The concentration of vapor at equilibrium with the liquid phase at 20¿C (68¿F) and standard atmospheric pressure expressed in milliliters per cubic meter (expressed in ppm). This concentration may be calculated from the vapor pressure (VP) of the liquid at 20¿C (68¿F). The general formula is the vapor pressure divided by the standard atmospheric pressure and multiplied by a million.

saturated zone

a subsurface area in which all pores and cracks are filled with water under pressure equal to or greater than that of the atmosphere.

saturation index

the relation of calcium carbonate to the pH, alkalinity, and hardness of a water to determine its scale- forming tendency.


Senate Bill.


Small Business Act.


Small Business Administration.


(abbr.) strongly basic anion resin.


State Board of Equalization.


Sierra Club.


see Subcutaneous


Secured Creditor Assessment.


South Coast Air Basin .


the precipitate that forms on surfaces in contact with water as the result of a physical or chemical change.

scale pit

a collection chamber alongside a rolling mill that receives roll cooling water containing metallic scale.


Superfund Consolidated Accomplishments Plan.


South Coast Air Quality Management District.


self-contained breathing apparatus. Breathing apparatus with full facepiece and an independent supply of air or oxygen.


See SETA, SETAFLASH Closed Tester.


Standard Cubic Feet per Minute.


Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund.


the tough, white, fibrous covering of the eyeball.


Single Cool-Multifunctional - Single Pass - Cooling Water Treatment (ETUS).


the removal of surface debris from raw textile fibers.


Selective Catalytic Reduction.


The State Consolidated RCRA Authorization Manual.


materials discarded from manufacturing operations that may be suitable for reprocessing.


Superfund Community Relations Coordinator.


use of racks of screens to remove coarse floating and suspended solids from sewage.


an air pollution control device that uses a spray of water to trap pollutants and cool emissions.


Soil Conservation Service.


Supplementary Control Strategy.


Supplementary Control System.


Standard Deviation.


Subchronic Daily Intake.


Safe Drinking Water Act (1974); establishes maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.


State Enforcement Agreement.


State/EPA Agreement.


Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual.


Strategic Environmental Assessment System.


Securities and Exchange Commission.

secondary drinking water regulations

unenforceable regulations which apply to public water systems and which specify the maximum contamination levels which, in the judgment of EPA, are required to protect the public welfare. These regulations apply to any contaminants that may adversely affect the odor or appearance of such water and consequently may cause people served by the system to discontinue its use.

secondary fibers

in the paper industry, fibers reclaimed from waste paper.

secondary standards

these standards, sometimes called Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCLs), address taste, odor, color, and other aesthetic aspects of drinking water that do not present health risks. These guidelines are recommended as reasonable goals, but federal law does not require water systems to comply with them; however, some states do choose to enforce them.

secondary treatment

biochemical treatment of wastewater after the primary stage, using bacteria to consume the organic wastes. Use of trickling filters or the activated sludge process, removes floating and settleable solids and about 90 percent of oxygen demanding substances and suspended solids.Disinfection with chlorine is the final stage of secondary treatment.

secure chemical

(See: landfills).

secure maximum contaminant level

maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water which is delivered to the free flowing outlet of the ultimate user of a water supply, the consumer, or of contamination resulting from corrosion of piping and plumbing caused by water quality.


letting solids settle out of waste water by gravity during waste water treatment.

sedimentation tanks

holding areas for waste water where floating wastes are skimmed off and settled solids are pumped out for disposal.


soil, sand, and minerals washed from land into water usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers and harbors, destroying fish-nesting areas and holes of water animals, and clouding the water so that needed sunlight might not reach aquatic plants. Careless farming, mining, and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to be washed off the land after rainfall.


a particle or particles, usually crystalline, added to a supersaturated solution to induce precipitation.


water than flows through the soil.


Socioeconomic Impact Analysis.

select carcinogen

see Carcinogen.

selective pesticide

a chemical designed to affect only certain types of pests leaving other plants and animals unharmed.


the order of preference of an ion exchange material for each of the ions in the surrounding aqueous environment.


Scanning Electron Microscope.


Standard Error of the Means.

semi-confined aquifer

an aquifer that is partially confined by a soil layer (or layers) of low permeability through which recharge and discharge can occur.


the aging process. It can refer to lakes in advanced stages of eutrophication.

sensible heat

heat measurable by temperature alone.


a state of immune-response reaction in which further exposure elicits an immune or allergic response. A person previously exposed to a certain material is more sensitive when further exposed to it.


a material that on first exposure causes little or no reaction in man or test animals, but which on repeated exposure may cause a marked response not necessarily limited to the contact site. Skin sensitization is the most common form. Respiratory sensitization to a few chemicals is also known to occur.


Standard Engineering Practice.

septic tank

is a water-tight covered receptacle designed to receive or process, through liquid separation or biological digestion, the sewage discharged from a building sewer. The effluent from such receptacle is distributed for disposal through the soil and settled solids and scum from the tank are pumped out periodically and hauled to a treatment facility.


one action occurring followed by others in a given order, as opposed to simultaneous actions.


to form a stable, water-soluble complex.


State Emergency Response Commission; group designated under

service connector

the pipe that carries tap water from the public water main to a building.


Secondary Emissions Standard.


Used to measure flash points in liquids in the 32 to 230 degree range (ASTM D 3278-82).


Site Enforcement Tracking System.

settleable solids

that matter in wastewater which will not stay in suspension during a preselected settling period, such as one hour, but either settles to the bottom or floats to the top.

settling chamber

a series of screens placed in the way of flue gases to slow the stream of air, thus helping gravity to pull particles out of the emission into a collection area.

settling tank

a holding area for waste water where heavier particles sink to the bottom and can be siphoned off.


a general term for several designs of devices used to recover fiber from white water and clarify the water for reuse.


the organic waste and waste water produced by residential and commercial establishments.

sewage lagoon

see lagoon.

sewage sludge

sludge produced at a Publicly Owned Treatment Works, the disposal of which is regulated under the Clean Water Act.


a channel that carries waste water and stormwater runoff from the source to a treatment plant or receiving stream.Sanitary sewers carry household and commercial waste. Storm sewers carry runoff from rain or snow. Combined sewers are used for both purposes.


the entire system of sewage collection, treatment, and disposal. Also applies to all effluent carried by sewers.


Slope Factor.


Standard Form.


Spectral Flame Analyzers.


Sludge Fixation (ETUS).


SDS-2 Acid-Experimental (ETUS).


SDS-2 Oxidizer-Experimental (ETUS).


SDS-2 Polymer-Experimental (ETUS).


SDS-2 Reducer A-Experimental (ETUS).


SDS-2 Reducer B-Experimental (ETUS).


SDS-2 Reducer C-Experimental (ETUS).


Safe Drinking Water Act; establishes maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.


a wall to protect people from exposure to harmful radiation.

short circuit

see Channeling.


non-scientific term for the process of breaking up the DNA derived from an organism and then moving each separate and unidentified DNA fragment into a bacterium.


International System of Units.


Site Investigation.


Spark Ignition.


Standard Industrial Classification.


pneumoniosis caused by the inhalation of iron particles.Also, tissue pigmentation caused by contact with iron.


Sodium Ion Exchange Regenerant (ETUS).

signal words

the words used on a pesticide label - Danger, Warning, Caution - to indicate the level of toxicity of the chemicals.

significant deterioration

pollution resulting from a new source in previously "clean" area. (See: prevention of significant deterioration).

significant deterioration

pollution from a new source in previously "clean" areas.

significant municipal facilities

those publicly owned sewage treatment plants that discharge a million gallon per day or more and are therefore considered by states to have the potential for substantial effect on the quality of receiving waters.

significant violations

violations by point source dischargers of sufficient magnitude and/or duration to be a regulatory priority.


a condition of massive fibrosis of the lungs causing shortness of breath because of prolonged inhalation of silica dust.


fine particles of soil or rock that can be picked up by air or water and deposited as sediment.

silt density index

a measure of the tendency of a water to foul a reverse osmosis membrane, based on timed flow through a membrane filter at constant pressure.


management of forest land for timber. Sometimes contributes to water pollution, as in clear-cutting.


Secondary Ion-Mass Spectrometry.


controlling oil spills by using an agent to trap the oil. Both sink to the bottom of the body of water and biodegrade.

sinking agents

means those additives applied to oil discharges to sink floating pollutants below the water surface.


a clinker-like material produced in a special furnace from a mixture of coal and recovered iron-bearing materials, such as scale pit solids, used as charge for a blast furnace.


state implementation plan; plan required of each state under CAA for implementing air quality standards.


Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation.


the land or water area where any facility or activity is physically located or conducted, including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.

site inspection

the collection of information from a Superfund site to determine the extent and severity of hazards posed by the site. It follows and is more extensive than a preliminary assessment.The purpose is to gather information necessary to score the site, using the Hazard Ranking System, and to determine if the site presents an immediate threat that requires prompt removal action.


the process of choosing a location for a facility.

size classes of discharges

refers to the following size classes of oil discharges which are provided as guidance to the OSC and serve as the criteria for the actions delineated in subpart D. They are not meant to imply associated degrees of hazard to public health or welfare, nor are they a measure of environmental injury. Any oil discharge that poses a substantial threat to public health or welfare or the environment or results in significant public concern shall be classified as a major discharge regardless of the following quantitative measures: (a) Minor discharge means a discharge to the inland waters of less than 1,000 gallons of oil or a discharge to the coastal waters of less than 10,000 gallons of oil.(b) Medium discharge means a discharge of 1,000 to 10,000 gallons of oil to the inland waters or a discharge of 10,000 to 100,000 gallons of oil to the coastal waters.(c) Major discharge means a discharge of more than 10,000 gallons of oil to the inland waters or more than 100,000 gallons of oil to the coastal waters.

size classes of releases

refers to the following size classifications which are provided as guidance to the OSC for meeting pollution reporting requirements in subpart B. The final determination of the appropriate classification of a release will be made by the OSC based on consideration of the particular release (e.g., size, location, impact, etc.): (a) Minor release means a release of a quantity of hazardous substance(s), pollutant(s), or contaminant(s) that poses minimal threat to public health or welfare or the environment.(b) Medium release means a release not meeting the criteria for classification as a minor or major release.(c) Major release means a release of any quantity of hazardous substance(s), pollutant(s), or contaminant(s) that poses a substantial threat to public health or welfare or the environment or results in significant public concern.


a surface finish, such as starch, applied to paper and textile fibers.


using a machine to remove oil or scum from the surface of the water.


notation indicating possible significant contribution to overall exposure to a material by way of absorption through the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes by direct or airborne contact.


skin effects; e.g., erythema, rash, sensitization of skin.


in metallurgical processing, the impurities separated from molten metal during refining; in boiler furnaces, the noncombustible ash which has reached fusion temperatures.

slop oil

a general term in oil refining applying to tramp oil discharge to the oily sewer during shutdown and startup or through abnormal operation.

slope factor

a plausible upper-bound estimate of the probability of a response per unit intake of a chemical over a lifetime.The slope factor is used to estimate an upper-bound probability of an individual developing cancer as a result of a lifetime of exposure to a particular level of a potential carcinogen.

slow sand filtration

means a process involving passage of raw water through a bed of sand at low velocity (generally less than 0.4 m/h) resulting in substantial particulate removal by physical and biological mechanisms.


Sludge Protect Reagent (ETUS).


any solid, semi-solid, or liquid waste generated from a municipal, commercial, or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility exclusive of the treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.

sludge blanket

an accumulation of solid matter hydrodynamically suspended with an enclosed body of water, such as in a clarifier.

sludge volume index

an inverse measure of sludge density.


a large "dose" of chemicals or a chemical treatment that is applied internally or at one time.


a water containing a high concentration of suspended solids, usually over 5000 mg/L. A pourable mixture of solid and liquid.

small quantity generator

a generator who produces less than 1000 kg of hazardous waste per month (or accumulates less than 1000 kg at any one time) or one who produces less than 1 kg of acutely hazardous waste per month (or accumulates less than 1 kg of acutely hazardous waste at any one time). The threshold will reduce to 100 kg per month of hazardous waste on March 31, 1986.


molten slag; in the pulp industry, the cooking chemicals tapped from the recovery boiler as molten material and dissolved in the smelt tank as green liquor.


Secondary MCL.


Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.


a facility that melts or fuses ore, often with an accompanying chemical change, to separate the metal. Emissions are known to cause pollution. Smelting is the process involved.


Sample Management Office.


Superfund Memorandum of Agreement.


air pollution associated with oxidants.


dry particles and droplets (usually carbon or soot) generated by incomplete combustion of an organic material combined with and suspended in the gases from combustion.


Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards.


Situation Normal All F(ouled) Up.


Significant Noncompliance Action Program.


Suggested No Adverse Response Level.


Significant Non-Complier.


Significant New Use Rule.


sulfur dioxide; gas released from burning fossil fuels; associated with atmospheric ozone depletion and ground-level ozone (smog) productions.


Semivolatile Organic Compound.


Synthetic Organic Chemicals.


Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturing Industry.

soda ash

a common water-treatment chemical, sodium carbonate.

sodium absorption ratio (SAR)

in irrigation water, a relationship between sodium and hardness used to predict acceptability for both the plant and soil being irrigated.

soft detergents

cleaning agents that break down in nature.


the removal of hardness (calcium and magnesium) from water.

soft water

any water that is not "hard", i.e., does not contain a significant amount of dissolved minerals such as salts containing calcium or magnesium.

softened water

any water that is treated to reduce hardness minerals to 1.0 gpg (17.1 mg/L) or less, expressed as calcium carbonate.

soil absorption field

a sub-surface area containing a trench or bed with clean stones and a system of distribution piping through which treated sewage may seep into the surrounding soil for further treatment and disposal.

soil conditioner

an organic material like humus or compost that helps soil absorb water, build a bacterial community, and distribute nutrients and minerals.

soil gas

gaseous elements and compounds that occur in the small spaces between particles of the earth and soil. Such gases can move through or leave the soil or rock, depending on changes in pressure.

solar energy

power collected from sunlight, used most often for heating purposes but occasionally to generate electricity.


a metallic compound used to seal the joints between pipes. Until recently, most solder contained 50 percent lead.

sole source aquifer

an aquifer that supplies 50 percent or more of the drinking water of an area.

solidification and stabilization

removal of wastewater from a waste or changing it chemically to make the waste less permeable and susceptible to transport by water.

solid waste

any garbage, refuse or sludge, including solid, semisolid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, agricultural and mining operations, and community activities; excluding material in domestic sewage, discharges subject to regulation as point source under CWA, or any nuclear material or byproduct regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

solid waste disposal

the final placement of refuse that cannot be salvaged or recycled.

Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965

see "RCRA".

solid waste management

supervised handling of waste materials from their source through recovery processes to disposal.


Solution. A uniformly dispersed mixture. Solutions are composed of a solvent (water or another fluid, for example) and a dissolved substance, called the solute.

solubility in water

a term expressing the percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature.Solubility information is useful in determining cleanup methods for spills and fire-extinguishing methods for a material. Solubility is expressed as negligible, less than 0.1 percent; slight, 0.1 to 1.0 percent; moderate, 1 to 10 percent; appreciable, more than 10 percent; complete, soluble in all proportions. Best units of measure are g/l. Reported values can be converted: mg/l + 1000 = g/l; g/100ml x 10 = g/l; g/100cc x 10 = g/l; g/g HàO x 1000 = g/l.


SOLUTIONS Information Technology Network: see SOLUTIONS Software Corporation.


the leading publisher of waste management software. SOLUTIONS Software Corporation, 1795 Turtle Hill Rd.Enterprise, Florida USA 32725. Telephone (407) 321-7912, FAX (407) 323-4898, BBS (407) 321-6119 [8-N-1].


substance (usually liquid) capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substance. Water can be a solvent.

sonic boom

the thunderous noise made when shock waves reach the ground from a jet airplane exceeding the speed of sound.


Standard Operation Procedures.


fine particles, usually black, formed by combustion (complete or incomplete) and consisting chiefly of carbon. Soot gives smoke its color.


the action of soaking up or attracting substances; used in many pollution control processes.


Sulfate Zero (ETUS).


Standard Operating Safety Guide.


Source Test Data.


a geographic area, facility or portion of a facility where air emissions regulated under CAA may be released; as applied to hazardous waste generation, a process or process component resulting in production of a waste.

source control action

is the construction or installation and start-up of those actions necessary to prevent the continued release of hazardous substances or pollutants or contaminants (primarily from a source on top of or within the ground, or in buildings or other structures) into the environment.

source control maintenance measures

are those measures intended to maintain the effectiveness of source control actions once such actions are operating and functioning properly, such as the maintenance of landfill caps and leachate collection systems.

sour water

waste waters containing malodorous materials, usually sulfur compounds.


Statement of Work.


the chemical symbol for oxides of sulfur. Oxides of sulfur where x equals the number of oxygen atoms.






Powerful General Purpose Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).

space velocity

the flow per unit volume of resin or gpm/CF.


Status of Permit Application Report.


an involuntary, convulsive muscular contraction.


Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure plan.


Secondary Particulate Emissions.

special analytical services

non-standardized analyses conducted under the CLP to meet user requirements that cannot be met using RAS, such as shorter analytical turnaround time, lower detection limits, and analysis of non-standard matrices or non-TCL compounds.

special populations

refers to individuals with special needs such as the hearing impaired, visually impaired, mobility impaired, school children, nursing home residents, etc.

special review

formerly known as Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration (RPAR), this is the regulatory process through which existing pesticides suspected of posing unreasonable risks to human health, non-target organisms, or the environment are referred for review by EPA. The review requires an intensive risk/benefit analysis with opportunity for public comment. If the risk of any use of a pesticide is found to outweigh social and economic benefits, regulatory actions -- ranging from label revisions and use-restriction to cancellation or suspended registration -- can be initiated.


a reproductively isolated aggregate of interbreeding populations of organisms.

specific chemical identity

The chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.

specific gravity

describes the density (or heaviness) of a material and is expressed as a ratio of the density (d) of a substance (at degrees F/degrees C). Water (d=1g/cc, at 39 degrees F/4 degrees C) is the density reference for solids and liquids while air (d=1.29 g/l, at 32 degrees F/0 degrees C and 760 mm) is the density reference for gases. Essentially, specific gravity for solids and liquids numerically equals density. For example, a solid or liquid with a 1.2g/cc density has a specific gravity of 1.2 (1.2 + 1.0 = 1.2). However, the specific gravity for gases does not equal density since air has a density of 1.29 g/l. For example hydrogen has a density of 0.089 g/l with a specific gravity of 0.069, (0.089g/l + 1.29g/l). Specific gravity is an important fire suppression and spill cleanup consideration because most (not all) flammable liquids have less than a 1.0 specific gravity and, if insoluble, float on water.

specific resistance

the resistance between opposite faces of a one-centimeter cube of a given substance and expressed as ohms-cm.

specified ports and harbors

means those ports and harbor areas on inland rivers, and land areas immediately adjacent to those waters, where the USCG acts as predesignated on-scene coordinator. Precise locations are determined by EPA/USCG regional agreements and identified in federal regional contingency plans.




Structured Programming Facility.


Strategic Planning Initiative.

spill or leak

The methods, equipment, and precautions that should be used to control or clean up a leak or spill.

Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures Plan (SPCC)

plan covering the release of hazardous substances as defined in the Clean Water Act.


State Priority List.


Special Purpose Monitoring Stations.


Strategic Planning and Management System.


dirt or rock that has been removed from its original location, destroying the composition of the soil in the process, as with strip-mining or dredging.

spontaneously combustible materials

Spontaneously combustible material (solid) means a solid substance (including sludges and pastes) which may undergo spontaneous heating or self-ignition under conditions normally incident transportation or which may upon contact with the atmosphere undergo an increase in temperature and Ignite. See flammable solid.


Organic Catalyzed Inorganic Precipitant, Chelate Breaker - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


a reproductive cell, or seed, of algae, fungi, or protozoa.


unplanned development of open land.


dirt or rock that has been removed from its original location, destroying the composition of the soil in the process, as with strip-mining or dredging.


Basic Precipitant - Inorganic - Heavy Metal (ETUS).


Small Quantity Burner Exemption.


a Small Quantity Generator.


Sample Quantitation Limit.


Superfund Remedial Accomplishment Plan.


Solvent-Refined Coal.


Soil Remediation Levels.


Standard Reference Method.


Settleable Solids.


Superfund Surcharge.




Solder Stripper Acetic-Peroxide - Printed Circuit Chemical (ETUS).


Sole Source Aquifer.


Soil Site Assimilated Capacity.


Solder Stripper - Fluorboric Peroxide - Printed Circuit Chemical (ETUS).


Scientific Support Coordinator.


State Superfund Contracts.


Standards Support Document.


Standard Support and Environmental Impact Statement.


Stationary Source Emissions and Inventory System.


Spark Source Mass Spectrometry.


Social Security Number.


Stop Sale, Use and Removal Order.


The ability of a material to remain unchanged. For MSDS purposes, a material is stable if it remains in the same form under expected and reasonable conditions of storage or use. Conditions that may cause instability (dangerous change) are stated; for example, temperatures above 150¿F; shock from dropping.


to convert the active organic matter in sludge into inert, harmless material.

stabilization ponds

see lagoon.


an expression of the ability of a material to remain unchanged. For MSDS purposes a material is stable if it remains in the same form under expected and reasonable conditions of storage or use. Conditions such as temperature above 150 degrees F or shock from being dropped that may cause instability (dangerous change) are stated on the MSDS. See Unstable.

stability index

an empirical modification of the saturation index used to predict scaling or corrosive tendencies in water systems.

stable air

a mass of air that is not moving normally, so that it holds rather than disperses pollutants.


a chimney or smokestack; a vertical pipe that discharges used air.

stack effect

used air, as in a chimney, that moves upward because it is warmer than the surrounding atmosphere.

stack gas

(see: flue gas).


lack of motion in a mass of air or water, which tends to hold pollutants.


prescriptive norms which govern action and actual limits on the amount of pollutants or emissions produced.EPA, under most of its responsibilities, establishes minimum standards. States are allowed to be stricter.


Strategic Targeted Activities for Results System.


Superfund Transactions Automated Retrieval System.


means the several states of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Northern Marianas, and any other territory or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction. For purposes of the NCP, the term includes Indian tribes as defined in the NCP except where specifically noted. Section 126 of CERCLA provides that the governing body of an Indian tribe shall be afforded substantially the same treatment as a state with respect to certain provisions of CERCLA. Section 300.515(b) of the NCP describes the requirements pertaining to Indian tribes that wish to be treated as states.

State Emergency Response Commission

commission appointed by each state governor according to the requirements of SARA Title III. The SERC's designate emergency planning districts, appoint local emergency planning committees, and supervise and coordinate their activities.

State Implementation Plans (SIP)

EPA-approved state plans for the establishment, regulation, and enforcement of air pollution standards.

statements of work for the CLP

these documents specify the instrumentation, sample handling procedures, analytical parameters and procedures, required quantitation limits. QC requirements, and report format to be used by CLP laboratories. The SOW also contains the TCL.


an ion exchange reaction occurring with a volume of liquid in continuous contact with a volume of resin.

stationary source

a pollution location that is fixed rather than moving. One point of pollution rather than widespread.


the law as passed by Congress and signed by the President.


short-term exposure limit; ACGIH terminology. See TLV-STEL.


Scanning Transmission-Electron Microscopy.


(1) in pest control, the use of radiation and chemicals to damage body cells needed for reproduction. (2) the destruction of all living organisms in water or on the surface of various materials. In contrast, disinfection is the destruction of most living organisms in water or on surfaces.


short-term exposure value. See TLV.


the distillate produced in the cooking of meat or in the rendering of fat and scraps.

Stiff-Davis index

an index used to predict the stability of brackish waters, such as those used in waterflooding.


Soluble Threshold Limit Concentration.


the ratio of chemical substances reacting in water that corresponds to their combining weights in the theoretical chemical reaction.

Stokes' law

an expression for calculating the rate of fall of particles through a fluid based on densities, viscosity, and particle size.


inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth.


the holding of hazardous waste for a temporary period, at the end of which the hazardous waste is treated, disposed of, or stored elsewhere.

storm sewer

a system that collects and carries rain and snow runoff to a point where it can soak back into the ground-water or flow into surface waters.

storm-water or wastewater collection system

means piping, pumps, conduits, and any other equipment necessary to collect and transport the flow of surface water run-off resulting from precipitation, or domestic, commercial, or industrial wastewater to and from retention areas or any areas where treatment is designated to occur. The collection of storm water and wastewater does not include treatment except where incidental to conveyance.


Sewage Treatment Plant.


Standard Temperature and Pressure.


a slotted or screened sieve to filter a flowing stream of water.


separating into layers.


the portion of the atmosphere that is 10 to 25 miles above the Earth's surface.

strip mining

a process that uses machines to scrape soil or rock away from mineral deposits just under the Earth's surface.


growing crops in a systemic arrangement of strips or bands which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.


a process that uses machines to scrape soil or rock away from mineral deposits just under the earth's surface.

strong electrolyte resin

the equivalent of strongly acidic or strongly basic resins and capable of splitting neutral salts.

strong oxidizer

A chemical that promotes oxidation readily and, on contact with combustible material, may cause fire.


partial or nearly complete loss of consciousness.

Subchronic Rfd (RfDs)

an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude or greater) of a daily exposure level for the human population, including sensitive subpopulations, that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects if the exposure were to occur for a period of less than 7 years.


beneath the skin.


to change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase. Dry ice exhibits sublimation.

Subpart Z

See Z List.


Safe Use Determination.


Standard Unit of Processing.

surface water

means all water which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff.

sulfur dioxide (SOà)

a heavy, pungent, colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. This major air pollutant is unhealthy for plants, animals, and people.


a depression or tank that catches liquid runoff for drainage or disposal, like a cesspool.

sump pump

a mechanism for removing water or wastewater from a sump or wet well.

superficial linear velocity

flow of water per unit of area or gpm/ft2.


the program operated under the legislative authority of CERCLA and SARA that funds and carries out the EPA solid waste emergency and long-term removal remedial activities.These activities include establishing the National Priorities List, investigating sites for inclusion on the list, determining their priority level on the list, and conducting and/or supervising the ultimately determined cleanup and other remedial actions. (see CERCLA).

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act


Superfund Memorandum of Agreement (SMOA)

means a nonbinding, written document executed by an EPA Regional Administrator and the head of a state agency that may establish the nature and extent of EPA and state interaction during the removal, pre-remedial, remedial, and/or enforcement response process. The SMOA is not a site-specific document although attachments may address specific sites. The SMOA generally defines the role and responsibilities of both the lead and the support agencies.

Superfund state contract

is a joint, legally binding agreement between EPA and a state to obtain the necessary assurances before a federal-lead remedial action can begin at a site. In the case of a political subdivision-lead remedial response, a three-party Superfund state contract among EPA, the state, and political subdivision thereof, is required before a political subdivision takes the lead for any phase of remedial response to ensure state involvement pursuant to section 121(f)(1) of CERCLA. The Superfund state contract may be amended to provide the state's CERCLA section 104 assurances before a political subdivision can take the lead for remedial action.


a heat exchanger located in a furnace to increase the temperature of steam leaving the boiler drum.


the liquid overlying the sludge layer in a sedimentation vessel.


to contain more in solution than normal for a given temperature.

supersonic transport (SST)

a jet airplane that flies above the speed of sound; it may be extremely noisy upon takeoff and landing.

support agency

means the agency or agencies that provide the support agency coordinator to furnish necessary data to the lead agency, review response data and documents, and provide other assistance as requested by the OSC or RPM. EPA, the USCG, another federal agency, or a state may be support agencies for a response action if operating pursuant to a contract executed under section 104(d)(1) of CERCLA or designated pursuant to a Superfund Memorandum of Agreement entered into pursuant to subpart F of the NCP or other agreement. The support agency may also concur on decision documents.

support agency coordinator (SAC)

means the official designated by the support agency, as appropriate, to interact and coordinate with the lead agency in response actions under subpart E.

support media

a graded-particle-size, high-density material such as gravel, anthrafil, quartz, etc. used to support the resin bed.

surface collecting agents

means those chemical agents that form a surface film to control the layer thickness of oil.

surface impoundment

a facility or part of a facility which is a natural topographic depression, man-made excavation, or diked area formed primarily of earthen materials (although it may be lined with man-made materials), which is designed to hold an accumulation of liquid wastes or wastes containing free liquids, and which is not an injection well. Examples of surface impoundments are holding, storage, settling, and aeration pits, ponds and lagoons.

surface water

all water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.) and all springs, wells, or other collectors which are directly influenced by surface water.


a surface active agent; usually an organic compound whose molecules contain a hydrophilic group at one end and a lipophilic group at the other.


a sudden rise to an excessive value, such as flow, pressure or temperature.

surveillance system

a series of monitoring devices designed to determine environmental quality.


Saybolt Universal Seconds. A unit measure of viscosity determined by the number of seconds required for an oil heated to 130 degrees F (lighter oils) and 210 degrees F (heavier oils) to flow through a standard orifice and fill a 60-ml flask.

suspended solids (SS)

tiny pieces of pollutants floating in sewage that cloud the water and require special treatment to remove.


the act of suspending the use of a pesticide when EPA deems it necessary to do so in order to prevent an imminent hazard resulting from continued use of the pesticide. An emergency suspension takes effect immediately; under an ordinary suspension a registrant can request a hearing before the suspension goes into effect. Such a hearing process might take six months.

suspension culture

individual cells or small clumps of cells growing in a liquid nutrient medium.


Slow Wave.


a type of wetland that is dominated by woody vegetation and does not accumulate appreciable peat deposits. Swamps may be fresh or salt water and tidal or non-tidal. (See: Wetlands).


Solid Waste Air Quality Tests.


Solid Waste Assessment Tests.


Solid Waste Disposal Act.


Solid Waste Disposal Site Cleanup Management Account.


State Solid Waste Management Board.


Solid Waste Management Unit.


State Water Resources Control Board.


Surface Water Toxic Controls Program.


the combined action of several chemicals which produces an effect greater than the additive effects of each.


an interaction of materials to give a result different from either material alone. For example, both smoking and exposure to asbestos can cause lung disease; however, if an individual smokes and is exposed simultaneously to asbestos, the danger of lung disease increases dramatically.


liquid or gaseous fuels produced from coal, lignite, or other solid carbon sources.


alternative names by which a material may be known.

Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOCs)

man-made organic chemicals.Some SOCs are volatile, others tend to stay dissolved in water rather than evaporate out of it.

systemic pesticide

a chemical that is taken up from the ground or absorbed through the surface and carried through the systems of the organism being protected, making it toxic to pests.

systemic toxicity

Adverse effects caused by a substance that affects the body in a general rather than local manner.





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